Vintage Furniture Vs Antique Furniture

How do you distinguish the differences between vintage furniture and a true antique? The easiest way is to consult a dealer or serious collector. But there are a few things you can look for that will help you identify some of the differences.



The term "vintage" is often used loosely just to mean "old". There's more to vintage furniture than that. One way to define vintage is "representing the highest quality of a past time".

Vintage Furniture Vs Antique Furniture

Vintage furniture is usually very well made with a great attention to detail. It's characterized by maturity and a sense of appeal that withstands the test of time. A wide range of furniture styles can be considered vintage. Some furniture sellers use this term to refer to all sorts of furniture, including modern. It is used to describe originals and reproductions that can't be identified as antique. Some modern pieces are acknowledged as classics of the twentieth century and are labeled "vintage classics".


A piece of furniture is considered antique if it was created at least one hundred years before the date of purchase. It is a unique piece of furniture that has been left in its original state. Some people may like to buy old pieces of furniture with the purpose of refinishing them, but it is a good idea to find out their true value before making any changes.


Authentic antique items are usually not made with a single type of wood. Upholstery may be stuffed with horsehair or hay.

One way to distinguish the difference between vintage and antique furniture is by examining drawers. Furniture parts were not machine-cut until 1860, so a drawer that was constructed using hand-made dovetails was produced prior to that. Nicks and marks may have been left in the wood from using hand tools such as planes and draw-knives.

True antiques have been created solely by hand and are imperfect. Small details and imperfections may be spotted, such as rungs and spindles that may not be uniform. Once furniture began being created by machine, pieces were reproduced identically. Also, wood shrinks with age so a true antique piece will not have uniform dimensions.

The finish on an old piece of furniture offers another clue as to whether it's a true antique. Oil and wax were used on the oldest pieces of furniture and later replaced by shellac. Lacquer and varnish became popular in the mid-1800s.

An antique is an investment, and it will continue to gain value with time. Both vintage and antique furniture pieces are well made and usually of excellent quality. Before you make any modifications, make sure you find out whether a piece of furniture is truly an antique. Many people purchase valuable pieces at yard sales without even realizing their value. If you suspect a piece may be a true antique, consult an antique expert. You may want to have the furniture appraised to find out its actual value, particularly before altering it in any way.

Vintage Furniture Vs Antique Furniture

Looking for vintage and mid-century modern furniture? Check out the selection of new and used vintage furniture at the buy and sell marketplace at

Modern Blood Bank Equipment

Blood bank equipment as the name suggests is the apparatus used in blood banks and hospitals. It is a kind of medical or laboratory equipment. Blood is a very important element of our life. Blood banks perform the significant job of storing this vital crimson colored body fluid for various groups, so as to provide it to the patient when the need arises. This vital body fluid can save the life of a person; this can give a new life to the one in need. The blood bank equipment is used by various blood banks, hospitals, research centers, and clinical laboratories all over the world for the collection and processing of blood, especially the human blood. These pieces of equipment are indispensable for the functioning of the aforementioned organizations.

All types of blood bank equipment come under four prime categories viz. collection, storage, testing, and blood bank accessories. The list of the modern blood bank paraphernalia is very long, and they are being very widely used these days. Since it is not feasible to explain each and every type of blood bank apparatus in detail, some of the prominent types of such apparatus are mentioned under:


1) Tube Sealer: It is a compact equipment meant for sealing the blood bag pilot tube by employing the ratio frequency sealing system. This apparatus can seal with an average speed of one tube per 1.5 seconds. The tubes so sealed can be easily separated by pulling the sealing joints by both the sides.

Modern Blood Bank Equipment

2) Collection Monitor: It is a sophisticated piece of apparatus used for the purpose of monitoring the blood donation process. Also called the blood collection mixer, this apparatus makes sure that the quantity of this claret fluid taken from the body of the donor is not more than the prescribed quantity. It also acts as an anticoagulant agent to prevent blood clotting. No doubt, this apparatus is a must for any hospital or blood donation camp.

3) Blood Bank Refrigerators: This is a kind of specialized refrigerating device used for the purpose of storing the vital body fluid named blood. This apparatus is widely used in hospitals, clinics, blood banks, etc. It is also used for storing certain vaccines and biological products which require very cool ambient. This is a very high quality laboratory equipment, properly insulated from all sides in order to sustain the cold temperature inside.

4) Plasma Expressor: This electromechanical device is meant for separating the plasma from the crimson colored body fluid. The conventional separator requires the use of monitor in performing the job that a contemporary plasma expressor equipped with an optical sensor, can perform in a much easy and efficient manner.

5) Donor Chair: This chair comes under the category of blood bank accessories. This is a special type of chair on which the person donating the blood can almost lie down and be comfortable. This chair provides the correct posture to the donor, required for the proper flow of this vital fluid from his body. The seat and back covers of this chair are generally made of materials like leather and vinyl.

Besides the above-mentioned blood bank equipment, there are numerous other apparatus as well. For acquiring further information about various types of blood bank products, you may visit Laboratory Equipment World.

Modern Blood Bank Equipment

Spumoni - Part 3 - A Delicious Easy Recipe

Well, I'm sure by now you've decided that, while spumoni might well be a delicious Italian Dessert, it's WAY too much work. I wanted to provide a reasonably authentic recipe for this delicious dessert for those who wanted to hone their cooking skills. However, the tedious and time-consuming recipe listed in the previous post is not one that everyone will care to try.

With this in mind, I sought out an easier, more user-friendly recipe that would enable more people to try spumoni without the huge investment of time, energy and skill. The recipe I'm bringing to you today will be easier and faster to prepare and offers the opportunity to be selective in the ingredients for those who are fat, calorie and carb conscious.


Easy Spumoni

Spumoni - Part 3 - A Delicious Easy Recipe

  • Divide one half gallon of vanilla ice cream into 2 parts, 1 quart each.
  • Need 1 quart of chocolate ice cream
  • 1 bottle of Maraschino cherries
  • Rum flavoring
  • 1 pkg Instant Pistachio pudding
  • Almond flavoring
  • sliced almonds
For the first layer:

  • Slice the maraschino cherries thin and line the bottom of a square pan with them.
  • Add the rum flavoring to your personal taste to one portion of the softened vanilla ice cream.
  • Spread this mixture over the thinly sliced cherries in the square pan.
  • Freeze this mixture.
For the second layer:

  • After the first layer has frozen for several hours, take the remaining portion of the vanilla ice cream and allow it to soften.
  • Mix 1/2 of the package of Pistachio pudding into the softened ice cream.
  • Spread this mixture on top of the cherry-vanilla mixture and allow to freeze several hours.
For the third layer:

  • Add almond flavoring to taste to the softened chocolate ice cream.
  • Spread this chocolate mixture over the two vanilla mixtures.
  • Place the sliced almonds on top of the chocolate ice cream.
  • Allow the whole mixture to freeze for several hours.
  • Serve as you would for regular ice cream.
Enjoy this easier recipe for this delicious Italian Dessert. Feel free to substitute reduced fat or no added sugar ice creams if desired to meet the dietary needs of your friends and family....or if you feel brave....if you feel REALLY brave....try the REAL recipe....either way, you'll marvel your guests when you serve this pretty and tasty Italian Dessert. Have some real fun with this recipe and create your own variations and add your own touch to it. The fun of cooking lies largely in your ability to use your imagination to make it "yours". I've found that once you start "improvising", you'll get hooked for life!

One note-Spumoni usually has claret sauce drizzled on top. I found the following recipe:

Boil 1 c sugar and 1/4 c water 8 minutes; cool slightly, and add 1/3 c claret or light red wine.

Bon Appetit!

Spumoni - Part 3 - A Delicious Easy Recipe

Vicki Fassler, Having fun blogging and making money in the process. Come join me, won't you?



The Wine of Israel and Wine in Biblical Times

Israel is a nation possessing a rich past. The turning pages of history find it at the center of the Bible, while present day finds it at the center of conflict. A country known for many things, wine is not necessarily one of them. Going into a liquor store and requesting the finest bottle of Israeli wine isn't something many people do.

The reason for this is because wine, until recently, wasn't something Israel brought to the table, proudly placing a bottle between the rolls and potatoes. Instead, Israeli wine was filled with a reputation for being a type of drink someone should put a cork in. This, however, wasn't for lack of trying.


Wine production on Israeli lands began thousands of years ago, perhaps even prior to the Biblical era. However, the wines that were made during this time often tasted so bad that bottles shipped to Egypt were garnished with anything that would add flavor. Stopping just short of adding RediWhip, people tossed in everything from honey to berries, from pepper to salt. The bottles sent to Rome, though not lacking flavor, were so thick and so sweet that anyone who didn't have a sweet tooth, or a spoon, wasn't able to consume them.

The Wine of Israel and Wine in Biblical Times

The wine was of such poor quality that when Arab tribes took over Israel in the Moslem Conquest of 636, putting a stop to local wine production for 1,200 years, disappointment didn't exactly ferment.

In the late 1800's, wine production began again in Israel. Determined to let Israeli grapes have their day in the sun, a Jewish activist and philanthropist name Baron Edmond de Rothschild began helping Jews flee oppressors, eventually helping them adapt to their Palestine settlements. He then began to help them plant vineyards. Because of this, he is known as a founder of Israel's wine industry.

But, the kindness and intentions of even the most good-hearted of men wasn't enough to save Israeli wine from its past reputation. Because the lands of Israel and the climate were not ideal for vine growing, the wine produced was often of poor quality. Too coarse and too sweet to be consumed, Israeli wine was looked on unfavorably until just a few decades ago.

With the adoption of modern equipment, the import of good vine stock, the encouragement given to viticulturists, and the planting of vineyards in mountain ranges, near lakes, and in flat areas, Israel wine has recently become much more appreciated, for its taste and its variety. Replacing the sweet red wines with lighter, dryer red wines and producing more champagne, the wines of Israel have finally begun to climb up the vine in terms of greatness.

The wines presently produced in Israel are done so in one of five regions: Galilee, Shomron, Samson, Negev, and Judean Hills. The Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc are viewed as particularly good, although Israel also produces several Merlots and other common varieties.

Kosher Wine

While not all the wine produced in Israel is Kosher, a good portion of it is. This has led many wine drinkers to have the wrong impression about Israeli wine, an impression that is based on a misconception of what the word "Kosher" truly means.

Some people possess the assumption that when food and drinks are Kosher the taste of the product drastically changes, similar to the way making a hamburger "vegetarian" forever alters its flavor. However, when something is Kosher it simply means that it was made in a way that adheres to the dietary laws of Judaism.

There are two types of Kosher wine: Mevushal and non-Mevushal. For wine to be non-Mevushal, which is the basic form of Kosher, the preparation of it must follow a regime of specific rules. To begin, the equipment used to make wine must be Kosher, and only used for the production of Kosher products. As the wine goes from grape to bottle, it may only be handled, or opened, by Sabbath-observant Jews. During the wine's processing, only other Kosher products may be used: artificial preservatives and colors, and animal products may not be added.

Wines that are Mevushal are subject to an additional step on the Kosher agenda. Going through flash pasteurization, the wine becomes heated, making it unfit for idolatrous worship. This, in turn, removes some of the restrictions, keeping the wine Kosher no matter who handles it.

Jesus and Wine

The history of Israeli wine is unique in that it also involves the history of Christ. Whether or not Jesus advocated drinking wine, and whether or not the wine he drank was alcoholic, has become a cornerstone in many historical and religious debates. While some people insist that Jesus drank wine, others insist that he didn't, and, of course, a few Bill Clinton fans insist that he drank, but didn't inhale.

There are hardly any people arguing on the premise that Jesus consumed large amounts of wine. Instead, people argue whether or not the Bible condemns all use of alcohol or whether it condones its use in moderation. Depending on which side a person prefers to linger, innumerous references from the Bible can go in both directions. Some people assert that the "wine" referenced in the Bible was nothing more than nonalcoholic grape juice. But, those who take an opposing stance state that there are too many Biblical references warning against excessive use of "wine." If it was just grape juice, or a wine with virtually no alcohol content, there would be no need for precautions.

Though there are several examples of passages in the Bible that involve Jesus drinking wine, with the most famous one likely being The Last Supper, the Bible also includes innumerable references to wine in general, wine drinking that does not necessarily involve Christ.

There are approximately 256 references to wine written in the contents of the Good Book. From these references, readers learn that wine was made from grapes, figs, dates and pomegranates. It was often consumed as part of the every day diet, during times of celebrations, during weddings, as gifts and offerings, and as a symbol of blessing. In some passages, it was even used for medicinal purposes.

Wine Strength During this Era

Another question that often arises in regards to wine in the Bible and Christ's consumption is its alcoholic strength. If the wine was in fact wine and not grape juice, then it obviously had some sort of alcohol content. However, the wine of the Biblical era was much weaker than the wine we know today. While one reason for this was the addition of water, another reason was naturally fermented wine (wine that does not have additives) was the only wine available during this time. Because sugar and yeast were not yet added to wine, its alcohol content remained lower than modern day spirits.

Whether or not Jesus drank wine, and whether or not it was condoned or condemned, is based on a great deal of speculation. Like many items of debate, people often use passages in the Bible to move an argument in their direction, even when their chosen reference is laden with ambiguity. Some people may swear that he drank, while others may insist that he didn't. However, in truth, we will probably never know and, along these lines, we really shouldn't need to: when it comes down to it, a person's faith is based on much bigger things than their opinion of alcohol.

The Wine of Israel and Wine in Biblical Times

Jennifer Jordan is the senior editor at With a vast knowledge of wine etiquette, she writes articles on everything from how to hold a glass of wine to how to hold your hair back after too many glasses. Ultimately, she writes her articles with the intention that readers will remember wine is fun and each glass of anything fun should always be savored.

Colors of the Human Aura and What They Mean

There are many different colors of the human aura. The list of colors below gives a brief description of each main color along with the meaning of that color.

Aqua - a person tends to be a healer with this color.
Black - this color aura shows up in abused children, divorce, people addicted to drugs and victims of torture.
Pale blue - a sensitive person will display a pale blue aura.
Sky blue - a person with strong natural instincts has this color.
Cobalt blue - this person has intuition coming from a higher source.
Prussian blue - this aura color represents harmony.
Royal blue - this aura color appears when people have found their path in life.
Delft blue - this person has a strong ethical foundation.
Ultramarine - this aura color is seen in people who spend a lot of time around the ocean.
Navy blue - moving in a methodical, safe way.
Indigo - this person will have well adapted psychic abilities.
Amber - represents a person with personal courage and strength.
Caramel - this aura color is seen when a person is making positive career moves.
Copper - this aura color only shows up in people who are in the mining business.
Raw sienna - when people have problems thinking clearly you will see this color.
Fawn - one is experiencing an ending with a problem.
Doeskin - people who are very organized show this aura color.
Mushroom - you are fulfilling you destiny, but slowly.
Chocolate brown - people who work with the earth.
Russet-brown - a person who works very hard.
Terra-cotta - people who go against the grain.
Dark brown - someone who has common sense.
Gold - the person exists on a higher level of consciousness.
Pale green - a person who is advancing spiritually has a pale green aura.
Lemon green - found in people who are liars and cheats.
Apple green - people with this color aura are healers.
Iridescent green - this color aura shows up in friendly people.
Emerald green - the solution to a problem is coming when you see this color.
Jade - a person with this color aura is charitable.
Viridian - a person suffering from mental or emotional stress.
Olive green - this color aura indicates a scrooge.
Dark green - a dark green aura shows someone is suffering from mental stress.
Turquoise - this color aura are in people who have gone from rags to riches.
Gray - a gray aura means people feel trapped.
Charcoal gray - when someone is suffering from depression this color will appear.
Apricot - communication in a caring manner.
Orange - a person with this aura has strong motivation.
Pumpkin - a pumpkin aura represents self control.
Pale pink - true love is represented with a pale pink aura.
Pink madder - a person who has strong loyalty and commitment.
Salmon pink - this color aura is from people who love what they do for work.
Iridescent pink - someone who has a strong sexual desire.
Dusty pink - foolish people display this color aura.
Lavender - people who have had an out of body experience display this color aura.
Lilac - a person who is spiritual balanced.
Magenta - the entrepreneurs aura color.
Mauve - displayed in humble people.
Imperial purple - this aura color shows up in people with a very active dream life.
Grape - a grape aura is the color of laziness.
Violet - humble people show the violet aura color.
Carmine - you see this aura color when people are trying to change something in their life.
Vermillion - creative people display this color.
Rustic red - a person with a short temper shows this aura color.
Scarlet red - a person with a big ego.
Crimson - a person with this aura color is naturally creative.
Maroon - a person who is self empowered.
Claret - a person who is determined has a claret aura.
Silver - a silver aura represents the link between earth and the spirit world.
Cream - a person who is going the right way in life.
Pearl - a true psychic will show a pearl aura.
Pale yellow - a shy person has this color aura.
Primrose - a person who is optimistic will show this color aura.
Lemon yellow - this aura color indicates a person who knows where they are going in life.
Buttercup yellow - someone who is focused on doing something.
Golden yellow - a person who is inspired.
Mustard - mustard aura's come from manipulative people.
Straw yellow - people who like to daydream.


Colors of the Human Aura and What They Mean
Colors of the Human Aura and What They Mean

The author Paul Andrew Todd was born in Cincinnati, Ohio and Since a very early age Paul has had a interest in metaphysics. He has read and studied extensively in the fields of spirituality, metaphysics, religion, mind control and other personal improvement areas. Paul has been a certified hypnotherapist for thirteen years. He graduated from the Cincinnati School of Hypnosis in 1996. Paul also has been practicing meditation daily since 1994. He is a trained yoga teacher and meditation instructor. Paul learned yoga at Rishikesh Yogpeeth in India. Since early 2009 Paul has been traveling the world and living on the road. His web site can be found at See Auras

For more information please visit Human Aura

Vintage Motorcycles

Motorcycles were first introduced in the later half of 19th century. Since the invention, motorcycles have become one of the most popular and common means of transportation. Vintage motorcycles are the earlier models of motorcycles which were manufactured after the First World War.

Vintage motorcycles are all time passion of bike riders and speed lovers. Apart from being a passion, some ardent rider also collects and preserves vintage motorcycles as treasures. The Japanese, British, Europeans, and the Americans were the leading manufacturers of motorcycles in the early days. But, the Japanese brands have gained much popularity due to their economic price, and the bike parts were easily availed.


Sunbeam, BMW, BSA, Norton, DKW, Brough Superior, and Triumph were some of the prominent manufacturers of vintage motorcycles, and these companies introduced many models of motorcycles during the vintage period. The prominent models include BMW R12, Indian 8-Valve Racer, Indian Chief, Sunbeam Model 8 LL, Triumph Tiger, John Tickle Norton, Cotton Racer, Triumph Bonneville, and Norton Dominator 99. These vintage motorcycles can also be given as beautiful gifts to motorcycle enthusiasts.

Vintage Motorcycles

Vintage motorcycles can be more expensive than modern-day styles. On an average, a vintage motorcycle will cost ,000 and more. But, the price of a vintage motorcycle will fluctuate based on the age, model, and type. Some of the vintage motorcycles are backed by different warranty periods and after sales services.

You can purchase vintage motorcycles from dealers who specialize in classic and vintage motorcycles or online stores. For a wider choice in vintage motorcycles, online stores are ideal. Most of the online stores will display its products, with description, picture, and pricing. Thus, a purchase can be made after going through the product description. Apart from vintage motorcycles, the parts are also available in the online stores.,, and are some of the online sites to shop for vintage motorcycles.

Before purchasing a vintage motorcycle, it is always recommended to go through the various vintage motorcycle magazines in order to get an idea about the various models, brands, and prices.

Vintage Motorcycles

Motorcycles provides detailed information on Motorcycles, Used Motorcycles, Custom Motorcycles, Mini Motorcycles and more. Motorcycles is affiliated with Motorcycle Accident Statistics.

How to Start a Vintage Girdles Collection

Vintage girdles are different from regular girdles that we know in the present day. They are usually hand sewn and not mass manufactured. Some vintage girdle will be pristine because it was never worn, while pieces that were worn may have slight imperfections. When you start your collection, you want to make sure you get the real thing and in top notch condition. When you are to shop in person, don't be afraid to ask questions. Look at the items over carefully before you buy. Genuine retailers will always cover your vintage girdles in high quality tissue paper to avoid it from cracks and damage.

Sizing has been altered considerably over the years. A modern size 12 will be noticeably bigger than a size 12 from the fifties. In addition, sizing also varies in different countries such as a US size 12 is different from a UK size 12. Please remember this important tip if you are ordering online.


Before starting a vintage girdle's collection, please make sure that the vintage girdles are not made of the same material as the modern-day counterparts such as Lycra and spandex. Instead, original vintage girdles relied on lots of elastic and "boning" to hold a figure in place. After the 15th century onward a number of manufacturers used foam rubber as filling in their corsets and corselets. Unfortunately for these, vintage girdles contain latex which breaks easily over time and foam rubber frequently becomes rock hard and inflexible.

How to Start a Vintage Girdles Collection

If you decide to shop online for vintage girdles, make sure the website describes the condition of the fabric. You can extend the life of the girdle by cleaning it with mild soaps and cool water. Putting it into the washing machine is a big no-no. A hand wash and air dry are essential for making them last. Make sure you look out for girdles that show no rust, spotless, no perishing of fabrics and without storage mask and smell.

The older the item and in great condition is likely to be more valuable than a more recent item. Girdles from the forties often had the '~utility label'. Older girdles will have rubber, cotton and rayon rather than Lycra in the modern garments. If you see a washing machine icon then it is more likely to be a modern garment. If you manage to find 'new old stock' or NOS, you're in luck as not only these girdles have labels intact but the original cardboard sales tag will be on the garment, and maybe even the original packaging.

Often, the corsets of these types are either laced or beaded. Because of having laced they must be hand sewn because lace is very complex and delicate. The lace used is usually black or white. Vintage girdles are usually black, white, light blue, or powder blue in color. The boning is also more flexible than a regular girdle. Once you begin learning about different lingerie manufacturers, you'll see which companies excel in form as well as function.

Vintage clothing has made a comeback and will be a part of the world of fashion for years to come. Collecting for investment tends to be risky because understated deterioration can be ongoing without expert care. So treat vintage girdles like the precious pieces they are and you will end up with a quality of vintage girdles collection.

How to Start a Vintage Girdles Collection

For more beauty tips, please visit

Sherry is a Very English Drink

Sherry is a very English drink, despite its Spanish provenance. After a dip in popularity, sales are on the up again.

While reading the tavern bill of the loquacious and bawdy drunkard Sir John Falstaff in 'Henry IV part 1', Shakespeare's Prince Hal lamented, "O monstrous, but one halfpennyworth of bread to this intolerable deal of sack." In those days, the cost of two gallons of sack, or sherri (sic), was a mere 5s/8d.


Sherry, together with Port and Claret, are still seen as archetypical English wines. Claret sales are relatively stable at the present, and Port is making a steady recovery, although it is still mostly drunk at Christmas. But what of old sack?

Sherry is a Very English Drink

Sherry comes from the region in southern Spain around the town of Jerez de la Frontera, originally named Xera by the earliest Phoenician settlers who brought vines with them in 1100BC.

Viciously fought over by successive invading Roman, Visigoth and Moorish armies, Jerez's diverse cultural identity is amply displayed in its two millennia of documented winemaking. This tradition, including distillation into spirits for medical use, began to flourish in the 14th and 15th centuries with the first accurately recorded exports, or 'saca's' - the arabic derivation of Sack. However, it was not until the 1800s that both British and Dutch traders set their minds to exploiting the pale dry wines of Jerez, some even basing themselves in the town to create the household brands like Harvey, Croft Osborne and Williams and Humbert.
The superior zone

Most Sherry - 97 per cent, in fact - is made using a somewhat ordinary white grape variety, the Palomino, a relative of the Riesling. The most favoured vine yards are located on soil to the north and west of Jerez, named the Superior Zone, being very rich in chalky calcium carbonate known as Albariza. The distinctive, almost white soil holds the early season rainfall, enabling the vines to flourish during the searing 40C heat of the summer growing season.

Once harvested, the delicately thin-skinned Palomino is gently squeezed using a pneumatic cushion press, so as not to include the skins, seeds or stems. From this initial pressing, the 'yema', comes around 80 per cent of the juice, which is used to make the lightest and most delicate Fino Sherry.
The wine making process

To begin the winemaking process, a natural yeast, the 'pie de cuba', which occurs locally, is added to the juice. After 45 to 50 days, the juice has fermented into wine, but is not yet Sherry. An initial classification, taken after both rigorous scientific analysis and subjective tasting and perusal by expert winemakers, grades the wine as either a potential Fino, the finest, or as an Oloroso, the most fragrant. Finos are then fortified with grape spirit to 15 degrees of alcohol, whilst the Olorosos are strengthened to 18 degrees alcohol. Both are then put into casks. A year later, another analysis establishes which Finos are thought to have evolved more like an Oloroso, and these are then re-fortified to the higher alcohol level.

It is in the maturing system of 'solera y criadera', that the true magic of Sherry really begins. After fortification, each year's wine is placed on the top level, or 'criadera', of barrels in the maturing cellar ('bodega'). To facilitate this, around 30 per cent of the wine in the bottom layer of barrels, known as the 'solera', is removed for bottling. The resulting space is then filled with wine from the next level up, and so on until the new year's wine can be added to the top level, thereby refilling all the barrels. In this way, a perfect blending system is maintained, and constant quality and supply is balanced.

During this ageing and blending system, a thin layer of 'flor', a yeasty veil, covers the surface of the wine in each barrel. 'Flor' is peculiar to this region, and helps to impart the complex nutty aromas and clean, crisp bite that is synonymous with Fino Sherry.

Though Sherry fell in popularity after its heyday in the Sixties and Seventies, much is now being done to re-establish the clean, fruity, nutty Fino style as a serious competitor in the dry white wine market. With alcohol levels of some oak-aged Chardonnay and Semillon wines now reaching 14.5 per cent, the strength of Fino at 15 per cent is seen to be comparable. Freshly marketed in fashionably sleek, green glass bottles, with sharp informative labelling, Tio Pepe looks very similar to other crisp dry white wines on the off licence or supermarket shelf.

It is, however, in the compatibility with food that Fino Sherry comes into its own. It is time for UK wine drinkers to reclaim Sherry for our own. Whether it be a cool, clean glass of Fino with tapas, mixed with tonic water as a long refreshing lunchtime tipple, or even a glass of pure Pedro Ximinez to accompany a chocolate dessert, Sherry deserves to regain its prestigious mantle once again.

Sherry is a Very English Drink

This article is currently published on and provides the answers to October 2005 Wine Quiz Prize Draw [].

History of Sangria

You are on a wonderful vacation in Spain. But you are feeling inadequate on your trip. You took an imperative action to throw your travel guide book away. That is it! No more get trapped in the infested tourist sites! You build up a courage to get off the beaten path with your wielded past Spanish lessons. You ventured into the community of partying Spaniards.

Tourist to Traveler


"Where is everyone?", she thoughts. Glanced at the watch and it read out 1:35 a.m. "Dónde está el partido?", she yells at the bartender.

History of Sangria

He fixated a baffle look at the tanned blonde lady. "Oh no, not another American, said under his breath.
"Grab a seat, lady".

"You speak English?", the lady answered surprisingly.

The lessons on Cultural Begins

"Would you like some Sangria?", asked the bartender.

"You want me to drink blood!?!", the lady taunted.

"Sangria, Sangria, not blood. Sangria derived from the word Sangre. Yes, lady, it meant blood.", the bartender explained.

"Earlier, you asked me where the party is. You are an early bird." As the bartender continues to explain, "People here start party around 2 a.m. Safe to said, the place here will get packed after 2:15 a.m."

"Wow! This is unlike us. We start around 8 p.m. and end at maybe midnight."

"The Spaniards know how to have fun." the bartender laughs.

"This Sangria is good!". How do you make it?"

"It is a secret.", bartender answered.

As the American and the bartender continues their lessons on the Spanish living.

The Sangria has been popular drink in Europe for hundred years. The basic recipe consists of Spanish wine, Rioja, and fruits. In some Europe countries used claret or Bordeaux. It occurs during maybe 1800s. The Sangria make its first appearance in America in 1964 at the World's Fair in New York. The Sangria began to spread in America.

Today to this day, there are many different recipes. Fruits mainly are oranges, apples, and lemons. It does not necessary restricts to the ingredient or red wine and fruits. Some people add rum, brandy, or even vodka to the Sangria.

When you see the Sangria with the words following, Sangria Blanco, it means that Sangria is making from white wine. As you know your basic Spanish, blanco means white. Sangria Blanco maybe will align with fruits that such as kiwis, peaches, or mangos.

Really, there is no rule on how to make Sangria. The rough guideline of Sangria making is wine and fruits mixture. To refine your recipe, you may use another alcohol, fruit juice, soda water, sparking water, and/or even use sugar.

The restaurants have their own recipe. The Sangria you drank is the bar's best kept secret recipe, the most traditional and authentic drink. I must say you have found the hidden treasure in the Spain. Frankly, The bar next door will have Sangria. I regret to said, lot of them are making it cheap due to mass of tourists want to taste the true Spanish therefore the bar want to have large quantity and sells it 8 time the cost in order to make profit.

You will be surprise how easy and inexpensive Sangria can be made. I am not said it is a cheap drink. It happens to be cheap by nature and it is great and fun to drink. You get alcohol, fruits and combine it together. You let it melds just like you marinates your food. That is the Sangria you drink.

Cultural Transform

"¿Puedo comprar le yo una bebida?", said the fashionable handsome Spaniard as he grab the barstool next to her.

The bartender observes the room.

The lady translates few words deliberately and reply, "Drink me no", as she shook her finger.

"I bet you it is around 2 a.m." the bartender reckons.

She checked her watch and it read out 2:11 a.m. Suddenly, she felt her wrist being grabbed. "Senor! Give me my watch back now!"


"We must stop and smell the roses, lady. Not only occasionally but, we must do it often." As the bartender debates, "Time is an important tool but not making a life chained to the time. Learn to control your destiny as you are master of your time, not a servant."

"Look!" as the bartender scans the room with his finger. The lady's eye feasts the room. The patrons banter, barmaid walk by with tray full of drinks, the couple flirts madly in the corner, and across the room another group of patron sings gleefully.

"What time do you think this party will end?", the bartender challenged.

"4 a.m.?"

"Find out.", the Bartender answered with a smirk, "It is only the way you can experience authentic Spanish living."

"Take two aspirins and see me to claim your watch in morning.", joked the bartender.

History of Sangria

This author is a foodie who appreciates the array of alcohols. You can read about his journey experiments the drinks of Sangria. To following his trips, go to How to Make Sangria and Collection of Sangria Recipe

Vintage Fenton Carnival Glass

Carnival Glass has become a popular collectors item in recent years. Contemporary pieces are readily available at cheap prices. However, the vintage Carnival Glass is really what is popular with collectors. To give you some additional information on this American art form, I will discuss the history, manufacture, and values of this beautiful glassware.

Carnival Glass History


Early in the 20th century, Tiffany & Co. and the Steuben Glass Co. produced a hand-blown iridized glass that was very popular with their wealthy clientele. These items, were hand made and commanded extremely high prices. In 1907, the Fenton Art Glass Company began mass-production of a high-quality and low-cost iridized glass, similar to the items crafted by Tiffany and Steuben. The Fenton iridized glass which was available in numerous colors, including a unique red. Fenton was not the only manufacturer of iridized glass, but it was the largest producing the colorful glass in over 150 patterns.

Vintage Fenton Carnival Glass

With entry into Great Depression, iridized glass lost its popularity. The inventory of this glassware was subsequently deeply discounted and commonly given away in supermarket and cereal promotions. In addition, the glassware was given away in carnival games, hence, the subsequent name Carnival Glass.

Popularity of iridized glass resurged in the 1950s with dealers and collectors and it was during this period that this glassware gained the name Carnival Glass. Today, the glass is still manufactured by Fenton, and several other companies.

Other Carnival Glass Manufacturers

Fenton, Northwood, Imperial Glass, Westmoreland and Dugan are just a few companies that manufactured carnival glass. Some of these manufacturers stamped their pieces with a distinctive mark. However, most other manufacturers did not mark their goods leaving some vintage pieces impossible to authenticate. Today, because of competition, and high labor costs, few of these manufacturers still remain.

Carnival Glass Values

The vintage Carnival Glass manufactured early in the 20th century is, by far, the most valuable, and sought after pieces. Color and condition play a large role in determining value. Chips, cracks, manufacturing defects and repairs reduce the value. If an item is a rare color like aqua it is of more value than an item in marigold that is common. The Red Carnival Glass manufactured by Fenton is very rare, and popular with collectors. Punch bowl sets, because they consist of multiple items, command high prices if complete with all pieces.

Contemporary Carnival Glass can be acquired at very reasonable prices. Many of these contemporary pieces are reproductions of their vintage counterparts. Because of the low cost, contemporary pieces are more suitable for the wear and tear of everyday use. Traditionally, venues such as antique shops and flea markets have been the primary source for vintage Carnival Glass. Today, take a look at eBay for thousands of listings of both vintage and carnival glass at great prices. Remember, one persons trash is another persons treasure.

It is so ironic that at one point in time Fenton Carnival Glass was so common, it could hardly be given away. Today, some vintage pieces sell for thousands of dollars.

Vintage Fenton Carnival Glass

Ross Bassette is an experienced eBay merchant and collector of vintage Carnival Glass. If you enjoyed reading this article, please feel free to visit our website and find some great deals on Fenton Carnival Glass.
Vintage Fenton Carnival Glass

Some History of the Allen Roundhead Gamefowl Chicken Breed

To simplify the story of the Allen Roundheads for those who haven't heard it before.

Will Allen of Mississippi obtained a Boston Roundhead gamecock from Dr. Fred Saunders and crossed him over some hens that a blend of Redquill and Grist Grady. The Gradys' were originated seemingly as a succession of battle crosses by Col Grist of GA. Some of the breeds making up the Gradys were Claiborne, Shawl neck (Southern USA Whitehackles) and Warhorse, plus a bit of Spanish blue stock.


Since all these breeds are straight comb, it would seem that Boston cock had very strong pea comb genes to give that characteristic to his offspring and descendants for generations to come to this day- after 100 yrs. or so.

Some History of the Allen Roundhead Gamefowl Chicken Breed

I have owned many, many "Roundhead" fowl over the past long yrs. I have been in the sport. I put the name in quotes because it refers (in the USA) to most any pea comb fowl that happens to be black breasted reds with white or yellow legs and that do not show too much of their Oriental lineage.

However there are also Black Roundheads and Negro Roundheads and on and on. So now it is used more as a generic term for pea comb fowl than as the name of a specific breed. However, generally the name refers to the Allen and Shelton Roundheads (Shelton was Allen's brother-in-law and they owned the fowl together). But another" however" the Allen Roundheads were breed and to a great extent developed by another old man-R.E. Walt. In fact in my younger days, most of the Roundhead gamefowl around OK. were referred to as RE Walt Roundheads instead of Allens.

You might ask about the Boston Roundheads that made the Allens. They arrived in the USA from Ireland without an ID tag. According to my sources, these fowl were known to be Irish Whitehackles-bred just like the more common English Whitehackles such as the North Britons, Earl of Derbies, and so on but many of the Irish had pea combs. The original Kearney (and Duryea) Irish Whitehackles had a % of pea combs as well as the Irish Whitehackles bred by my Irish friend John Tynan. I think he called them Queen Anne Whitehackles but I have forgotten for sure.

Remember after England colonized India, the English breeders had access to the best Oriental fowl such as Asil and even Japanese. These Oriental bloodlines were then added to the early English fowl of 500 yrs. or so ago that weighed only around 4 lbs.-about like the small Spanish cocks today. The Oriental crosses increased the size to around 5 lbs. or bigger, which most American cocks are today.

Over the years, the English breeders bred out the pea comb but since it didn't bother the Irish, they continued to breed both straight comb and pea comb Whitehackles. Of course the name Whitehackles comes from the old English custom of trimming the neck hackles close to the skin so that the cocks with a white under feather in the neck would be a whitehackle. There are also breeds called Blackhackle. There are jillions of Oriental/American crosses that come peacomb and are called Roundheads that contain not a drop of the original Allen bloodline. As is true for all other strains-some Roundheads are awfully good while others are awfully bad but most are somewhat in the middle. The pea comb Kelso fowl owe much of their good qualities to the George Smith Roundhead (same stock as Lundy Roundheads) that was blended with Claret to make the McClanahans that Walter Kelso used in his initial cross.

Some History of the Allen Roundhead Gamefowl Chicken Breed

For more information regarding gamefowl history, breeds and bloodlines visit the sites below.
The Gamefowl World
Gamefowl Breeds History and Bloodlines

Vintage Crochet Patterns - As Old As Time

Crocheting, I bet you've heard of this before. Most people have, it's a hobby as old as time. It's been around for years, and it's been estimated that the hobby started as far back as the 1500s! Unfortunately no proof has ever been brought forth as to when it actually originated.

Have you ever wondered where and when this needlework hobby started? According to the September 1997 newsletter of the Crochet Guild of America, a researcher theorized that the art of crochet could be traced as far back as 1500s in Italy. However, there is no solid evidence for this statement.


But even so, we can only imagine that this craft has been around for the longest time. And it has evolved from making only home décor works to stitching clothes and other fashion accessories as well.

Vintage Crochet Patterns - As Old As Time


Crocheting can let you do a lot of things. From small purses to jackets and sweaters, there are a lot of options to choose from. But there are probably some hobbyists that are looking for those old, classic patterns that can usually be seen during the early 1900s or even earlier. To help you in finding those hard-to-look for patterns, here are some resources that you can check out in the World Wide Web.

- Vintage Crochet Patterns. Tabitha Gibbons, the owner of this web site, offers several volumes of crochet patterns books. She sells a wide selection of vintage crochet patterns, from little doilies, rugs, afghans to bed covers and table cloths. By visiting her web site, one can fill out the name and email form to receive a free pattern book.

- Crochet Treasures. "Patterns from the past; Creating heirlooms for tomorrow..." This is the slogan of this web site with a collection of classic patterns. It is a member-based site that offers over 950 vintage patterns to its subscribers. For visitors, it also offers about 25 free vintage crochet patterns for personal use. However, it is not accepting new members at the moment until further notice by the owner.

- Celt's Vintage Crochet. Yet another vintage crochet patterns site, this really has a wide variety of vintage patterns to choose from. And the best thing about this site is that all of these patterns are for free! It also showcases the owner's finished projects, most of which are doilies and other table accessories.

- Soft Memories. This site brings you back to the past with its collection of more than a thousand vintage crochet patterns. The patterns are grouped in different categories - doilies, bed jackets and slippers, hanky edgings, potholders, ruffles and flowers, doll clothes, and other home décor pieces. All of these patterns can be viewed and printed out by subscribing to the site. There are also a few free patterns available for visitors to get a peak of what the site has to offer.

- Vintage Crochet Patterns e-book. This sort-of e-book contains 20 wonderful vintage patterns that are easy to crochet and can be hits in fairs and bazaars. Some examples of the patterns available are the crochet work bag, beaded doily, and the wedding ring bedspread. This is a portable document file (pdf) that can be downloaded for free from Crochet and Knitting web site.

- 1800's to Early 1900's Vintage Pattern Links. This site, authored by a lady named Martha who is also known as StarGazer, has several links to patterns that were designed way back 1800s up to 1930s. These patterns can be accessed for free. The site also has links to other web sites that offer vintage crochet patterns.

- Antique Crochet Patterns. This section in the web site Knitting-Crochet has almost a hundred of vintage patterns categorized into baby pieces, men's or ladies' wear, slippers, tablecloth, doily, and many others. It also offers to convert your knitting patterns to crochet and vice versa. Best of all, these patterns are free to access and print for personal use!

- Antique Crochet Patterns. This one is different from the site above as this is the web site name itself, not just a section. This site offers vintage crochet patterns from 1850s to 1950s and all of these are baby items such as bonnet, booties, hat, jumper, afghan, and a lot more. It also provides free lesson for the wannabes and beginners of this needlecraft.

These are just a few of the tons of resources you can find online that offers hard-to-find vintage patterns. Whether free or fee-based, these sites and resources can surely take you back in time with the wonderful, classical patterns that they offer.

If you are a crochet hobbyist you may seriously consider checking out these online resources. You should be able to find a huge variety of patterns for free, as well as purchasable ones. Whether you're a crochet master, or a novice of this eloquent hobby, these patterns will surely please you in many ways.

To learn more about getting started in crochet please visit [] now.

Vintage Crochet Patterns - As Old As Time

Crocheting is a great pasttime with lots of history behind it. If you are interested in learning more about beginning crochet or are already involved and would like to further your knowledge, please visit [].

Barcelona Soccer Team Facts

Barcelona is a city long in love with sports, especially the Barcelona Soccer Team.

In addition to hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics, Barcelona hosted parts of the 1982 Football World Cup and has hosted the X FINA World Championship and Eurobasket. The city has two UEFA 5-star rated football stadiums: FC Barcelona's Nou Camp and the Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys.


FC Barcelona's soccer team is almost a way of life in Barcelona. The rivalry with Madrid rises almost to the point where Barcelona can be considered the Catalonia national team. FC Barca was founded on 29 November 1899 by Joan Gamper, who created the team colors of blue and claret from the Swiss canton in which he lived. Barcelona lost its first ever match with some English expatriates 0-1, but within ten years began a string of Catalan and Spanish championships lasting decades. FC Barcelona went though tough times in the rise to the Spanish Civil War and its aftermath, but was able to recover and by the mid 1940s resumed its championship ways.

Barcelona Soccer Team Facts

FC Barcelona is a sports club containing basketball, handball, hockey, ice-hockey, figure skating, indoor football, rugby, baseball, volleyball and women's football, but the jewel in the crown has always been association football, or the Barcelona Soccer Team. The Barcelona team has qualified every year for the European competition since it was founded in 1955.

The club motto is "Més que un club" and they refer to their stadium as "Camp Nou." In English these are "More than a club" and "Our Ground." Despite a slump at the turn of the century, FC Barcelona has assembled a talented team and once again resumed winning ways. The club currently has a five-year deal with UNICEF, wearing the emblem on their jerseys and paying .9 million a year for the privilege.

Among the many claims to fame of the Barca team are that it has more victories than any other Association Football team in the world. They also have more wins in the Copa del Rey, the Spanish tournament, than any other team with 24 victories. There are 18 La Liga Championships, 7 Supercopa de Espana, 2 EUFA Champions League, 4 EUFA Winner's Cups, 3 Inter-Cities Fairs Cups, 1 Inter-City Fairs Cup Trophy Play-off, 2 European Super Cups, 2 Copa Latina, 4 Copa de Oro Argentina, 22 Catalan Championships, 2 Copa Martina Rossi, 4 Coupe de Pyrenees, 1 Mediterranean League, 2 Copa de Ligua, 1 Copa Barcelona, 1 Lligua Catalana, 5 Copa Catalana and one Little World Cup. It is little wonder Barcelona has embraced the Barcelona Soccer Team and reveres it as a symbol of Catalonia.

Barcelona Soccer Team Facts

Luca Robi is the owner and co-editor of []

Visit us if you want to learn more Information about Barcelona Soccer Team []

Vintage Kitchens of the 1930s, 1940s, 1950s

1930s: The Steam-lined -Depression Era "Modern Kitchen"

By the 1930's, the kitchen was being transformed from the old fashioned kitchen to the "Streamlined-Modern Kitchen" with time saving features, better organization and much improved ventilation. The "all-electric kitchen" was promoted in popular magazines with numerous advertisements showing newly designed small and major appliances. Mixers were the homemakers dream now designed with numerous attachments that could sift flour, mix dough, grate cheese, squeeze lemons, whip potatoes, shred, slice and chop vegetables and even sharpen knives. "Depression Green" was the "in" color used on the wooden handles of kitchen utensils, on kitchen cabinets and tables and on kitchen wares. Often accessories were cream and green replacing the white and black look of the previous decades.


Other popular color combinations in the 1930s were Gray and Red or Crimson, Silver and Green, Pearl Pink and Blue, as well as the use of checkered patterns on textiles. Kitchen wares such as canisters and Bread boxes tended to be softly painted with perhaps a simple decal.

Vintage Kitchens of the 1930s, 1940s, 1950s

In 1935 the National Modernization Bureau was established to promote modernization throughout the country. Manufacturers competed for better designed appliances and kitchen accessories. Color began to enter the kitchens of the thirties and articles in magazines featured decorating tips on color schemes and how to incorporate the kitchen into the rest of the home. Kitchens were no longer work stations but gaining as much attention as the rest of the home. Small and large appliances were available in color and Sears and Montgomery Ward featured colorful kitchen wares and "japanned" accessories such as canister sets, range sets, cake savers, bread boxes and waste baskets.

1940s: The Postwar Colorful Era

The Post War kitchen of the 1940's began to become family gathering places and now tables and chairs made of chrome bases with enamel, linoleum or plastic tops could be added to a more spacious kitchen which replaced the smaller work centered earlier kitchens. Separate formal dining rooms were being replaced by kitchens that could accommodate the family and guests. The kitchen was becoming a very inviting space and primary colors dominated the interior décor palette. Magazines advertised products for your "Gay Modern Kitchen". Combinations of red, green and yellow or red and black were popular as well as brightly colored tablecloths, textiles and curtains. Flowers, fruits and Dutch motif were in vogue and found on shelving paper, trim, decals and kitchenwares. Appliances continued to be produced with streamlined designs, rounded corners and smaller proportions. The combination washer/dishwasher was introduced as well as the garbage disposal and freezers for home use.

1950s: The Atomic Era-Pastel Color-Space Age

Dramatic changes would occur in the kitchens of the 1950's as space age, atomic era designs and materials entered the scene. The fifties kitchen featured plastics, pastel colors such turquoise or aqua, pink and yellow (cottage colors), Formica and chrome kitchen table and chair sets matched formica kitchen counters and were easy to keep clean with messy little ones. After the war there was more time for leisure promoting kitchenware's and accessories for picnics, barbecues, parties and the home bar.

The introduction of color T.V. in the 1950s brought full color into America's living rooms where homemakers could now see all the exciting products and appliances available to them. Following World War II, there was a new generation of plastics and time for "gracious living" and entertaining. Kitchens and homes saw the transition from glass, ceramic and tin products to numerous types of plastics which made casual living easier. Melmac and Melamine dishes, Lustro-ware and Tupperware storage accessories and "thermowall" for picnics were a huge success. Vinyl was used for tablecloths, chair covers and furniture and bark cloth with boomerang and abstract shapes was popular. Tablecloths and dishcloths continued to be brightly colored and souvenir textiles were added to the home with tropical, Southwestern and Mexicana themes. Poodles, roosters and designs with kitchen utensils, tea pots and coffee pots decorated potholders, appliance covers and linens. Appliances were built-in and came in fifties colors such as turquoise, soft yellow, pink and copper.

Vintage Kitchens of the 1930s, 1940s, 1950s

C. Dianne Zweig is the author of Hot Kitchen & Home Collectibles of the 30s, 40s, 50s and Hot Cottage Collectibles for Vintage Style Homes. She is also the Editor of an actively growing internet based resource community for people who buy, sell or collect antiques, collectibles and art. You can find Dianne’s fabulous retro and vintage kitchen, home and cottage collectibles at The Collinsville Antiques Company of New Hartford, CT, a 22,000 feet antique emporium with an in-house retro café.

If you would like to contact Dianne, email her at or visit her website at

Dianne is a member of:
The American Society of Journalists and Authors
The Authors Guild, Inc.

Types of Cactus Species

Cacti for plural use and Cactus for general are the specific plants of the Cactaceae family. The Cactaceae are the biggest existing family of the tender cactus plants. There are around 2000 recognized types of cactus species in the world, especially in the regions of Central, South, and North America. A huge amount of cactuses, but not entire, are fine habitant to the desert climatic conditions, utilizing their trunks for accumulation of water during long durational dry seasons. Several various cactus species of the barrel cacti shares the bodily attributes of a bony layered barrel shaped trunk. In terms of comparison, several types of the cactus species of barrel are of average length of about 4-10 feet. This physical feature makes the barrel cacti tinier than the huge columnar cactus and bigger than the pincushion cactus species. The barrel cacti mostly stand as a lone trunk cacti rather than huddled in factions, with blooms on the top. The barrel cactus species are one of the most admired countryside species of the cactus family.

Major Species:


One of the major distinctive cactus species is the Claret Cup cactus with attractive reddish and cup shaped flowers. This particular cactus species illustrates the tale behind the actual name of the cactus family. The shades and the surface between the stream and the remaining plant, makes it a popular snappy cactus species for several people residing in its habitant, mostly in the southern regions of the deserts in the extreme Southwest extending from California to Texas. Certain landscapers and garden keepers also admire utilizing it as a hummingbird cactus. This is because a wide range of hummingbird species such as the Magnificent, Black-chinned hummingbird, and the Broad-tailed hummingbird nourishes on the Claret cup cactus flower nectar and assists it in pollination process. Basically, the Claret cup cactus species is a small and spiny cactus that most often nurtures in groups of trunks. Another most admired cactus species is the Organ pipe cactus that are big grooved cactus that nurtures frequently in groups representing the organ pipes. The organ pipe cactus is inhabitant of the Sonoran Desert area of the Southern Arizona and Northern Mexico. One unique features of this cactus species is that they are nighttime bloomers and are mostly pollinated by bats.

Types of Cactus Species

Other Secondary Species:

The name of Pincushion is provided to loads of cactus species existing in the world. The Pincushion cactus is a tiny circular plant with small thorns. It appears as if someone has fussed pins in a cushion. The Pincushion cacti are quite adjustable types of cactus nurturing in an array of habitations. In the year of 1986, Arizona, the Pincushion cactus was declared as one of the endangered species of the cactus family.

Types of Cactus Species

If you would like to learn more about Indoor Plants and receive a FREE Newsletter on the subject visit the authors site

Vintage Perfume Atomizers - How to Spot Genuine Vintage Perfume Bottles

Vintage perfume atomizers and its growing popularity as collection pieces are also inspiring some type of fraud. There are many people who create imitations of antique perfume bottles because of its hefty value. However, there are some special markings and features of a genuine antique bottle that can be identified to avoid such.

Materials are very important pieces of any merchandise. In the case of vintage bottles, crystal lead should be the most genuine of all its materials. However, there are also some genuine bottles that are made from porcelain, this is especially true it these are from the Eastern side.


Features are still very essential. These features include the different elements in the bottle itself. There are many features of modern perfume bottles that are very different from the bottles. Some of these include how the perfume is dispensed as well as the bottles' own design.

Vintage Perfume Atomizers - How to Spot Genuine Vintage Perfume Bottles

One of the most notable features of a vintage perfume atomizers is the glass dauber stub. This is for dabbing larger areas with perfume. Say, you would be applying perfume at the lower part of the dress. If bottles have this type of top, then, there is a high probability of its originality.

Another important feature of Vintage perfume atomizers is the cork stub, since it keeps the perfume from spilling in case of topple. These cork stubs also keeps the top tight in place. One other feature of vintage perfume bottles are glass dip sticks. These are the sticks that are inside the bottle, used to apply in specific areas. Thus, spot application of the perfume. Just like modern perfume bottles that have a stick in the middle, their vintage counterparts have these also, only with different purpose. One was for dipping, the other as siphon for spraying.

Among the important features include the atomizer cushion which helps spray the perfume. Almost all depiction of bottles are with this type of cushion. Even in cartoons, perfumes are depicted in such light. Check on the materials used for the cushion and keep in mind that plastic is not yet used during that time. Any hint of plastic in the materials may mean that the bottle is fake or refurbished.

The bottles also have a difference in it. Usual modern perfume bottles have stable bases. However, some vintage perfume bottles are made to be asymmetrical that is why it cannot sand on its own. Some bases cannot stand on its own and is meant to lie down.

Perhaps the most important sign of a perfume bottle is the sign at the bottom of the bottle. These usually have some type of emblem that id etched at the bottom. Check whether it has a right spelling and that these are some known brands back then. This increases the value of the perfume bottles.

Make sure that you keep these in mind so that you would avoid spending on imitations and fakes.

Vintage Perfume Atomizers - How to Spot Genuine Vintage Perfume Bottles

--->>>Click Here to Get More information on Vintage Perfume Bottles [] and Antique Perfume Bottle []!

Hot Deals and great collection. Visit our blog to find out more!

Vintage Stationary Engines For Sale - Where to Find Excellent Choices

When looking for vintage stationary engines, you must be armed with patience and a lot of determination. Not everyone has fondness in this equipment, which makes it a little difficult to find in the market. However, you can make use of the advances in today's technology to locate the best vintage stationary engine you can purchase. The best way you can carry this out is to browse on your Internet. You can find just about everything online, and it's such a convenience that you can actually choose from a wide array of websites which have vintage stationary engines for sale.

Although you may have some uncertainties with regards to making payment online with your credit card, you can have this thought diminished by carefully making your selection of site. Make it a point that you settle on sites being managed and patronized by your fellow enthusiasts. This way, you will have the chance to interact with these people, to whom you can acquire useful advices from. To add to that, referring to online sources also allows you to elect for a seller nearest your location. Apart from not having to travel for a long period, picking up the equipment will be less of a hassle, too.


Details about vintage stationary for sale can also be acquired through advertisements. You may opt to buy magazines or other publications intended for buyers of stationary engines where there are also many assortments you can make your selection from, including its parts.

Vintage Stationary Engines For Sale - Where to Find Excellent Choices

Regardless of where you intend to purchase a vintage engine, you have to keep in mind a number of considerations to avoid regrets thereafter. Make a thorough scrutiny of the product and make sure it still functions in accordance to what is expected from it. Do not settle on cheap ones if it means sacrificing the quality. Whether you will be using publications or the Internet for reference, be sure you take time to compare the prices. You'll definitely find a stationary engine of good condition at reasonable price. Nonetheless, if you are not certain of which considerations you have to keep an eye on when you buy this item, seeking for an expert buyer's help is recommended.

Vintage Stationary Engines For Sale - Where to Find Excellent Choices

Vintage stationary engines - Find stationary engines at low prices, all makes available Lister, petter, rushton.

Do You Need Some Cheese With That "Wine"?

It's party time and your friends are on their way to your wine and cheese party. Choosing the right kind of cheese you serve depends on two things: the wine you serve and personal taste. As with everything else, everyone has his or her own likes and dislikes. This goes for the wine and the cheese.

Cheese tips:


Many cheeses taste better close to or at room temperature. Pull them out of the refrigerator an hour or so before serving. Also, you will need approximately 8-12 oz. of total cheese per person of which at least 1-2 oz. servings of each different kind of cheese per person. Remember that tastes vary from person to person, so try to have a nice variety of different kinds of cheeses for the wines you serve. Try these wine/cheese suggestions or mix them up to find what suits each person.

Do You Need Some Cheese With That "Wine"?

Type of Cheese- goes with this wine...

Brie- Merlot, Champagne or Sweet Sherry

Camembert- Cabernet or Chenin Blanc

Cheddar (Mild)- Champagne or Chardonnay

Cheddar (Sharp)- Cabernet or Sauvignon Blanc

Colby- Riesling or Champagne

Edam (from Holland)- Riesling, Dry Champagne or Pinot Noir

Emmentaler (from Switzerland)- Beaujolais

Fete- Beaujolais

Fresh Mozzarella- Red or White Wine

Goat Cheese- Chardonnay

Gouda- Riesling or Champagne

Graddost (Swedish Semi-hard cheese)- Chenin Blanc or Sauvignon Blanc

Grafton Village Cheddar- Cabernet or Sauvignon Blanc

Muenster- Beaujolais or Zinfandel

Displaying your cheese can also be fun. Flattened Wine Bottle Cheese Platters are a functional serving piece that can also double as wall art!

Have you ever wondered how they are made? Actual wine bottles are flattened through a 12-hour heat and gravity process reaching temperatures of over 1500 degrees! It takes a true artist to create these works of art. They are created in an actual glass studio ensuring premium quality and exceptional clarity. Each wine bottle cheese platter is unique, as they are hand made. The labels are attached to the underside of platters and are water-resistant. They are easy to clean...just wipe with a damp cloth. As wall art, they come ready to hang with a stainless steel wire melted into the bottle giving guaranteed hanging strength.

You will definitely want to display your wine bottle cheese platter when not in use. You will want a flat wine bottle cheese platter for your next wine and cheese party.
Remember these are just suggestions. If it tastes good, do it! It's party time.

Do You Need Some Cheese With That "Wine"?

Jennifer Sterling is a wine enthusiast and the owner and operator of

Wine - A Classy Drink

Wine is an alcoholic drink is made up of grape juice, fermented with yeast. Yeast has the capability of converting the grape juice into an alcoholic compound by breaking up the sugar compounds in it. The types of wines produced depend on the different grapes and different kinds of yeast put in it.

They are not just made from grapes but also different fruits, vegetables, flowers, tree sap, etc. thus depending upon the type of ingredient used in fermenting the wines are given names such as apple wine, fruit wine, barley wine, ginger wine, rice wine, etc.


Wine is believed to have been come into existence from about 6000 BC in Europe later on moving to the other parts too. Wine in spite of being considered as a hard drink is actually very good for health if drunk to a certain extent, but when crossed the extent it proves to be fatal like any other alcoholic drink!

Wine - A Classy Drink

But the benefits of drinking wine in that limited level also includes prevention from heart failure and heart related diseases. An effect on brain on consumption includes the reduction in the risk of Alzheimer's disease.

There are many types of wines available in the market, but the three major types include:

  • Red
  • White
  • Rose

White one is obtained from white grapes while reds from black or red grapes. There are different types found all over the world with different taste; this is mostly because of the difference even among white grapes and black grapes. Taste of depends upon the taste of the main essence the grapes! A good quality grape provides with a wine of an excellent quality. Cabernet sauvignon is probably one of the majorly produced popular reds in France. You may be thinking of choosing one of the different boat types available in the market and travel to Europe to taste some wines...

There are many interesting flavors, some are; wine with flavor of cherry and chocolate called as merlot and a wine with a smoky flavor called Grenache. White wines are also famous with chardonnay as the most famous white wine which gives a blended flavor of vanilla and fruit. With all this in here there is nothing to be surprised in telling that wine is a woman's drink. Production of wine is not easy it has to be harvested in the winter. White wine is generally produced in and around California.

The storage of wine is a factor not to be forgotten, wine's taste improves with age when properly stored. Wines are easily perishable; hence they have to be stored at a stable atmosphere. Wine is not just used as a drink but also used in culinary, especially desserts. These desert wines are very sweet to taste.

Wine is not something which can be labeled as costly or cheap; it solely depends upon our wants and needs and also the budget. If you are a person with a mad taste for wine, then never say no to a trip to Europe, because you will be missing exquisite experiences with the world's best wines!

Wine - A Classy Drink is a blog where you can find posts written by real experts. You can read interesting articles, such as ERP Definition.

Wine - Sweet, Dry or Tannic?

There seems to be some confusion among wine drinkers about the meaning of the terms sweet, dry and tannic, and the relationship among them. This article will try to ease that confusion with some simple explanations. Hopefully, it will help you find the right wine for you.

What we're talking about are actually three different things. Two are flavors registered by the taste buds and the other is a physical reaction of the tongue, lips and gums.


Wine Basics

Wine - Sweet, Dry or Tannic?

It helps to have a basic understanding of how wine is made. The sugar (mostly fructose) in grape juice is converted by yeast into alcohol in the process we call fermentation. If the fermentation is stopped (by raising or lowering the temperature or by adding brandy) before all the sugar is converted to alcohol, the wine will be sweet. If all of the sugar is consumed by the yeast, the wine is considered dry. While all of the sugar is never really converted, in well made table wines, the amount of sugar left behind is small enough to be imperceptible. The major exception is German Riesling, but we'll leave that discussion for another time. Tannin comes from the grape-skins, -seeds, and -stems, and also from new oak barrels.

Those are the technical definitions. How they translate to taste is the most important thing, and there begins the confusion. There are only five sets of taste buds; sweet (sugar receptors), sour (acid receptors), salty (mineral receptors), bitter (25 different receptors), and umami (glutamate receptors). Most of what we call taste really comes from our sense of smell. There are receptors for approximately 350 different scents in our nose[1].


Dessert wines contain sugar, which hits the sweet taste buds. That's a pretty simple concept.


In table wines, since there is no (perceptible) sugar, what we taste as sweet is really an inference we make from the fruit. Since we expect fruit to be sweet, and we taste the fruit (from the aroma), it seems sweet. Check out this definition of sweet from glossary:

Sweet: A term applied not only to wines with significant residual sugar, such as fortified or dessert wines, but also to those with intense, thoroughly ripe fruit flavors, which can convey a sweet impression even though they may be technically dry.

The degree of sweetness we taste in both dessert wines and table wines is determined by the acidity level of the wine. Sour is the antithesis of sweet. The more acidity present, the less sweet the wine seems to be. Higher acidity wines appear to be drier. Dry in this case is also the opposite of sweet. Hopefully, we don't have any truly sour wines, because that would be a real flaw. We have plenty of wines, however, that we would consider tart, or higher than normal in acidity. On a continuum, our definition of dry would be between sweet and tart.

Wine without sufficient acidity doesn't just taste sweet, it can also taste fairly dead in your mouth. Acidity brings wine to life, and allows more intense fruit flavors to come forward without becoming cloying. Thus a wine can be fruity, yet still be dry.


Finally, we come to tannic wines. Tannin affects wine in three ways.

  • In the bottle, tannin acts as a preservative. Tannin soaks up oxygen, allowing wine to develop the complex flavors that come with age without becoming oxidized.
  • On the taste buds, tannin is bitter. In proper proportions, it allows us to perceive flavors like coffee and chocolate in our wines.
  • Finally, tannin causes a physical reaction in the mouth that is separate from its effect on the taste buds. Tannin is astringent, which means that it dries out the tissue of our tongue, lips and gums.

Over time, as wine ages, the tannins form long chains and fall out of the wine as sediment. Wine thus becomes less bitter and less astringent as it matures. Tannin will bind to proteins. That's why a tannic wine always tastes better when consumed with food rather than by itself. The tannins can bind to some of the proteins from the food, rather than to the tissues of the mouth.

We often hear people ask for a wine that isn't too dry, when they really want a wine that isn't too tannic. They aren't looking for a sweet wine. They just want a wine that isn't going to cause that dry mouth sensation you can get from a wine that is high in tannins. The other thing we are often asked is to recommend a wine that is "smooth". While everyone's definition is a little different, we usually interpret that to mean a wine that is neither tart nor tannic.

Side by Side Comparison

To learn about wine, there really is no substitute for tasting. Here are three wines that will help your understanding of these terms. Ask a knowledgeable wine merchant for help in choosing; speaking as one who knows, they are getting paid to stand around and talk about wine all day (is that a good job, or what?) and they are generally very happy to help.

The first is a sweet wine made from the Grenache grape, from the French appellation Banyuls. In Banyuls, the fermentation is stopped by adding brandy to raise the alcohol level. Once the alcohol level gets high enough to kill the yeast, the fermentation stops with residual sugar remaining. This wine is a favorite of mine - a great value in a dessert wine, and Banyuls is (in my opinion) the best wine in the world for pairing with chocolate.

The second selection is a Cotes du Rhone. Try to find one that is fairly fruity. They are generally neither tannic nor uncomfortably tart. This is higher in acidity than the typical California Merlot or Australian Shiraz, but should be very much in balance (the acidity level is in proper portion to the level of fruit.) It is made primarily from the same grape as the Banyuls above, but is a very different wine.

The final choice is an Aglianico del Taburno. This southern Italian has obvious tannins, yet is perfectly accessible. It has moderate acidity. Compared to the Cotes du Rhone above, one should be able to make out the distinct texture and astringency of the tannin.

I hope this clears up the confusion. Buying, serving and drinking wine should be a pleasurable experience. We want you to enjoy every step along the way. Arming yourself with the information you need will help you reach that goal.

Wine - Sweet, Dry or Tannic?

Paul Bressler, 67 Wine & Spirits

For more wine articles, go to and click on the link to Original Articles.

Wine and Food Pairings - Which Wine to Serve with Dinner

Most people love to throw dinner parties for their friends and family. But, they may avoid serving wine because they do not know exactly what to serve. Do you serve red or white with fish? Will Merlot be okay if you are serving a Mexican dish? Do not stress over it - there are some basic wine rules you can follow.

The number one rule of thumb when choosing wine is "red wine with red meat, white wine with white meat." This is not always true, but it generally works quite well when you are unsure. One exception is chicken. The meat is white, but a nice fruity red wine goes well with it. The same can be said for tuna or salmon, so you do not have to always follow the rule of not serving red wine with fish. The second rule is the rule of complements. It is okay to match sweet seafood such as lobster with a sweet white wine. The next rule is the opposites attract. While you usually want to match like flavors, sometimes a contrast, such as a White Bordeaux with bluefish can be wonderful.


Outside of the basic rules, there are certain things you can look for and certain things you can avoid depending on what you are serving. Here are some hints as to what to serve with particular types of food.

Wine and Food Pairings - Which Wine to Serve with Dinner

Salads and Appetizers

You should avoid serving wine during your salad, as vinegar and wine do not mix well. But, if you are having an appetizer, you need to consider the ingredients in the appetizer to help you choose your wine. If you are having a cheese tray, the type of cheese will help you determine the wine. For example, cheddar is best with dry reds, Merlots, and Cabernet Sauvignon. Pinot Noir goes best with Swiss. Camembert and brie are great with a Chardonnay. The cheese we tend to think of as Italian such as parmigiano, romano, and reggiano go well with Italian dry red wines like Chianti and Barlol. If you are serving something a fried appetizer, consider serving a crisp, fruity white or red wine to help cut the oily flavor.

Beef, Steak and Lamb

Do you remember the "red wine with red meat" rule? That one is great to use when serving beef, steak, and lamb. Choose a dry red wine like Cabernet Sauvignon or a burgundy like Pinot Noir. You can also consider serving an Italian red such as Barolo or Chianti.

Fish and Seafood

To be safe, stick with a dry, crisp white wine. Sauvignon Blanc goes well with white fish while Sancerre and Muscadet go well with oysters. If you want to be different, try a fruity red wine (without tannins). But, use caution when serving red, especially if you are serving white, delicate fish. Cabernets with tannins combined with fish can leave a metallic taste in your mouth.

Poultry, Pork and Veal

For the most part, you want to follow the "white meat, white wine" rule with these. White chardonnays and Pinot Blancs are great. If you want to serve red with chicken, remember to choose a wine that is fruity like a Merlot or Zinfandel.


Think back to Thanksgiving. Do you remember how well your cranberry sauce went with the turkey? The same rule applies here. For turkey, since it has both white and dark meat, you want something fruity and tart such as a Beaujolais for red or a Riesling for white.

Spicy Foods

If you are planning on service something spicy like Thai or Indian food, a sparkling wine works best. Avoid wines with tannins and look for something fruity. And, make sure the wine is well chilled. Cold wine goes well with spicy foods.


The best thing to serve with a delicious dessert is a dessert wine. In fact, you can skip the dessert part and just serve a dessert wine to your guests. These are sweet wines often sold in smaller bottles as you don't drink as much dessert wine as you do regular wine. Wines such as Sauternes, Beerenauslese, Bermet and Cammandaria will make a great end to any evening.

The most important rule about what wine to serve is to avoid being snobby about wine. There are no right answers, only basic rules to go by and even those, as you have seen, can be changed. Do not be afraid to experiment with different tastes. Chances are if you do not act like there is anything wrong with the wine you are serving, your guests will not either.

Wine and Food Pairings - Which Wine to Serve with Dinner

Jason Connors is a wine lover providing valuable tips and advice on wine cellar design, wine making, and wine basics. Read his recent report on "What To Look For in a Wine Cooling System".

Getting a Few Facts Straight About Wines

If you're shopping for something, choosing the best product from among the slew of brands out there can prove to be an arduous task. The variety of products can get your head spinning in a daze. The choosing gets even harder when you hear about certain myths about a product. For example, you may have second thoughts about buying a certain item because there's misinformation about it that's been handed down from generation to generation or because some malicious tongues are giving it a bad rep.

When it comes to choosing wines, there are also a few misconceptions and fallacies about them, with some even reaching the stature of being a myth. Some wine lovers do not get to choose the best bottles and maximize their enjoyment of their wine either because they don't have enough info in their hands or they are misinformed. The following is a list of factors that will help you get the facts straight in terms of buying and enjoying wine:


The right temperature - Is there really a right temperature for wine? Can't we just pull out a bottle anytime or open it right after purchasing it from a shop? Well, no one can really stop you from uncorking or unscrewing (the question as to which one is better will be also be answered here) a bottle cap when you feel like having a sip of a Pinot Noir, a Cabernet Sauvignon or a Shiraz when you feel like it. However, you'll enjoy it more if they are stored within a certain temperature range. Reds are best between 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit, while their white counterparts are best chilled within the 41 to 48-degree range.

Getting a Few Facts Straight About Wines

Cork or screw caps? - The uninitiated may not be able to tell the difference between wines that are kept under a screw cap from those under a cork cap. Although many traditional wine aficionados may sneer at the thought, wine stays purer when they under a screw cap instead of under the cork type. This is why in some countries, you won't find a lot of bottles capped by a cork.

Food pairings - The long-held belief that reds go better with red meat and whites with white meat is not really something to be regarded as gospel truth. The verdict as to which goes well what will eventually depend on the person's taste buds. The color of the wine doesn't really dictate the color of the food to be paired with it.

Next time you buy and drink your wine, take heed of these tips so your wine experience becomes more enjoyable.

Getting a Few Facts Straight About Wines

Among the popular red wines, Pinot Noir is one that engages the head as much as it does the heart. Its flavor profile is a showcase of fruits and game-like qualities. Get Pinot Noir and other types of fabulous reds at

Racking Your Homemade Wine

Racking your homemade wine is vital to producing a high quality product. Don't be put off by the term, though. When winemakers rack their wine, they are simply transferring it from one vessel to another. A typical batch of homemade wine will be racked at least 2 times, and can sometimes need to be racked up to 4 times.

The most important aspect of racking wine is to leave the sediment behind. This will help the wine clarify and can also prevent the wine from picking up unwanted flavors and odors that can come from sitting too long on the sediment.


When to rack your wine is an important consideration. When you start a batch of wine, the initial fermentation will be very vigorous as the yeast consume the sugar in your must and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide. This is called primary fermentation and usually takes 5-7 days. Approximately 70 percent of the wine's fermentation will take place during this stage.

Racking Your Homemade Wine

After primary fermentation slows down, your wine can no longer protect itself from contamination and needs to be protected by an airlock. This is the first racking, and a simple siphon method through a flexible food grade plastic tube will accomplish it. Gravity does all the work, so carefully place your primary fermenter a couple feet off the ground and start the siphon process.

There are items available to assist with racking. One is called a racking cane. This is a rigid piece of plastic about 2 feet long. One end is specially made to sit on the bottom of the vessel while not drawing excess sediment into the tube. You can get by without one, but it's a great tool to have in your wine making toolbox.

For the first racking, try to leave as much sediment behind as possible. If a little is transferred into your secondary fermenter, don't panic. It's not as important on the first racking, so get as much liquid as you can.

The second racking should take place after your fermentation is complete. This can be a week or two or even 6 or 8 weeks, depending on how your fermentation progresses. This time you can be a little more careful about leaving sediment behind, even if it means losing a little liquid. Again, the same procedure as above applies. Start a suction and let gravity do the work for you. Don't forget to put the airlock right back on the wine, as exposure to air will oxidize your wine.

The third racking should take place after your wine has completely cleared. Remember, it will not clear in the bottles so be patient with this step and don't rack until you're sure it's as clear as it can be. Leave every bit of sediment behind during this racking. This is also the time you can add Sodium Bisulfite to the wine. This will drive off any excess oxygen that was created during racking.

Racking is an important step in homemade wine making. The better you understand and perform this vital step, the better your finished product will be.

Racking Your Homemade Wine

Have you ever wondered what it takes to make your own wine at home? Before you try it yourself, grab my free report that shows you what's involved and reveals some genuine secrets to making great wine at home. Visit and grab my FREE report to see how easy it can be! I can have you making delicious homemade wine in the shortest time possible with my e-book, Complete Step by Step Guide to Making Wine at Home.

Ted Begnoche